"a Sanskrit word     meaning an aeon, or a long period of time in Hindu and Buddhist cosmology."
"a measure of time of almost unfathomable length."
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Imagine the most enormous mountain, a staggering 95 km high and 50 km wide.

And now just imagine, once every 100 years a white dove carrying a small piece of silk in its beak, flies past this mountain and brushes it gently with the silk.

According to the Buddha, the mountain will be eroded into dust long before a single kalpa of time has passed.
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Look at the image below.

The layer at the bottom changes colour an incredible 250 times every second. Each time it does this, the layer above it will change colour once. As each layer in turn changes colour 250 times, the layer above it also changes colour, and so on until all the layers have changed.

According to mathematics, 116 mountains will have been eroded to dust by silk-carrying doves long before the top layer has completed a single cycle.